Musical Imagery (Studies on New Music Research, 5)

How Does Music Affect Teenagers?
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Color of Music series. Design composed of musical symbol, female head and color paint as a metaphor The National Endowment for the Arts—a federal grant-making entity that funds projects in every Congressional District in America—also contributed to the awards. Numerous studies have confirmed its effects on health. But Sound Health is taking it a huge step forward. The research will also seek to understand the effect of music on the developing brain of children, the NIH reports.

Collins, M. The effort comes out of a workshop , wherein the NIH brought together neuroscientists, music therapists and supporters of both biomedical research and the arts to discuss the interaction of music and the brain and how music is already being used as therapy. Examine mechanisms underlying the effects of music intervention on improving early speech and later language learning for developing infants, specifically those at-risk for speech and language disorders.

Psychological Imagery in Sport and Performance

Assess the effects of active music interventions on multiple biomarkers to provide a more holistic understanding of how active music interventions work to mitigate cancer-related stress and its potential to improve immune function. Study musical rhythm synchronization as a mechanism of healthy social development and how that is disrupted in children with autism spectrum disorder, with the goal of developing music interventions for social communication.

A series of Kennedy Center events have been focused on raising awareness of the science of music and its role in health and well-being. All individuals, regardless of age, gender, or skill level, are capable of using imagery as a means to enhance cognitive, behavioral, and affective outcomes. In the sport domain, athletes use imagery in training, competition, and rehabilitation.

Elsewhere, imagery has been widely utilized by other performers including military personnel, surgeons, and musicians. Everything I make as a producer, I visualize it as a DJ first. And all those beats, I test them as a DJ. David Guetta.

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I have a system of ridding my mind of negative thoughts. I visualize myself writing them down on a piece of paper. Then I imagine myself crumpling up the paper, lighting it on fire, and burning it to a crisp. Bruce Lee. The breadth of the application of imagery is far reaching, as demonstrated by these quotations from famous musician David Guetta and legendary martial artist Bruce Lee, illustrating that imagery can be used in different disciplines and for different functions.

An often cited definition of imagery is:.

Sometimes people find that it helps to close their eyes. It differs from dreams in that we are awake and conscious when we form an image. As just described, imagery is multisensory such that it can include the sense of sight, taste, sound, smell, and touch. In addition, the individual is awake and consciously aware when imaging and as such not dreaming.

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From early theories of imagery to more recent imagery models, the ways in which imagery is used to enhance performance will be explored. Measurement of imagery ability and frequency, which has been assessed primarily through the use of self-report, will be discussed, along with various factors influencing imagery use, including ability, speed, age, skill level and perspective.

The uses of imagery in sport, exercise, and performance domains will be examined and avenues for future research suggested. For many years, researchers have been interested in the way in which imagery is used and applied by individuals. Through a combination of imagery sub-processes, such as image transformation e. Despite the appeal of the simplistic explanation, a deeper understanding of how imagery works is necessary.

As such, several theories have been proposed psychoneuromuscular, bioinformational, triple code. Notwithstanding support and criticism of each of these theories, together they provide a foundation that continues to guide the development and refinement of imagery research and therefore warrant exploration and explanation. The most commonly discussed theories in sport, exercise, and performance psychology are presented along with an overview on the conceptual models of imagery. The psychoneuromuscular theory Jacobson, notes that when an individual mentally imagines a skill, the activated neural pathways are identical to those activated when physically performing the skill.

The feedback one receives from the muscle innervation of the imagined skill enables the individual to make adjustments in motor behavior. Through measurement of electromyographical EMG activity, wherein the innervations when imaging are much smaller in magnitude than when physically performing, empirical support for the psychoneuromuscular theory has been found. Despite this, Hall has noted the failure of the psychoneuromuscular theory to examine the various types of imagery and Feltz and Landers have criticized the validity of this theory because of methodological concerns.

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In bioinformation theory, Lang suggests that mental images comprise both stimulus proposition and stimulus response. Stimulus proposition refers to the content or characteristics of the image, such as a competitive swimmer imagining her surroundings and her opponents. Stimulus response, on the other hand, refers to the physiological and affective reaction experienced by the individual imaging.

For example, that same swimmer may feel tightness in her shoulders due to the anxiety experienced when imagining the swim meet or she may neglect external stimuli such as the crowd cheering after imagining a personal best time. Images that contain both stimulus proposition and response are most effective in enhancing performance.

Although not often acknowledged, Lang introduced the concept of meaning to the image, enhancing the relevance of the theory. Although an improvement over earlier theories, the bioinformational theory lacks explanation regarding the motivational types of imagery Hall, Ahsen argued that no two people would have the same imagery experience even if provided with the same imagery instructions.

Individuals bring their own unique set of experiences with them and view these experience through their individual lenses, thereby allowing for a different meaning of the image to emerge. As such, the most effective images are those that are realistic and vivid, evoke psychophysiological responses, and impart significance to the individual. However, as noted in the literature Morris et al. The aforementioned concepts provide theoretical underpinning for imagery use; however, exploration of this topic also requires an examination of the different models of imagery, which are also essential for furthering our understanding of imagery use.

Indeed, most of the recent performance imagery research e. It is well established that imagery has cognitive and motivational functions that operate at a general or specific level. The cognitive general CG function entails imaging strategies, game plans, or routines e.

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The motivational general MG function of imagery involves imaging physiological arousal levels and emotions e. According to AMIUS, the sport situation influences the types of imagery used, which are then associated with various cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes.

From an applied perspective, the model offers guidance for imagery interventions. That is, if a performer wishes to improve his confidence, he should engage in MG-M imagery. However, some researchers e.

Important notice

Indeed, the original belief that the type of imagery should match its intended outcome is not as clear as was once thought. The exercise model differs from the AMIUS in that the antecedents include factors beyond the physical setting e. This model has allowed for the refinement and development of exercise imagery research e. With over a decade of research guided by the AMIUS, Cumming and Williams proposed a revised model of deliberate imagery use applicable for many performers e. Most important, however, the revised model recognizes the personal meaning as the link between the imagery type and function.

Cumming and Williams note that the types of imagery are often combined to achieve a specific outcome e.

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The PETTLEP model was developed to guide imagery interventions and is based on functional equivalence, which suggests that processes that occur in the brain during imagery mimic the processes that occur during actual movement. Seven key factors are identified to help guide imagery interventions; physical, environment, task, timing, learning, emotion, and perspective.

Sophisticated neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imagery fMRI and positron emission tomography PET , as well as mental chronometry informs about the temporal coupling between real and simulated movements , have allowed researchers to test functional equivalence and to gain a greater understanding between imagery and movement. The measurement of imagery ability and imagery frequency have often been assessed in the sport, exercise, and performance imagery research.

Given that imagery is an internal mental skill, its assessment has typically relied on the self-report questionnaires allowing individuals to subjectively report their imagery use and ability. From an applied perspective, the measurement of imagery ability is important as it leads to more individualized, and therefore effective, imagery interventions.

Further, the measurement of imagery ability can be used as an imagery intervention screening procedure, thereby ensuring adequate imagery ability prior to the commencement of the intervention. Although there are numerous imagery ability questionnaires, the focus will be on the two most commonly used in the performance sport domain due to their inclusion of both movement and visual imagery.

About Shakespeare’s Musical Imagery

Although it was readily used for some time as a measure of imagery ability, Hall and Martin revised the MIQ Movement Imagery Questionnaire—Revised; MIQ-R , reducing the number of items and thus minimizing the amount of time needed to complete the questionnaire.

Those completing the MIQ-R are instructed to physically complete the movement sequence i. The MIQ-3 assesses external visual imagery e. Although the MIQ-3 has shown to be a reliable and valid measure Williams et al. It requires the participant to rate the 24 items on the vividness of imagery from 1 perfectly clear and as vivid as normal vision to 5 no image at all; you only know that you are thinking of the skill.

The item VMIQ-2 scale asks respondents to imagine a variety of motor tasks e. All items are measured on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 perfectly clear and as vivid as normal vision to 5 no image at all; you only know that you are thinking of the skill. The VMIQ-2 has shown adequate reliability as well as adequate factorial, concurrent, and construct validity Roberts et al.

Digging Out the “Earworms:” Involuntary Musical Imagery Correlates with Cortical Structure

All measurement tools are subject to criticism, and the imagery ability measures are not exempt. The instructions from the VMIQ-2 ask participants to draw on their memory of common movements, whereas the MIQ-3 requires participants to execute a movement first prior to imagining it, thereby relying on short-term memory. It may be argued that imaging a common movement kicking a ball; VMIQ-2 may be easier for the participant than imaging a less common movement raising your knee as high as possible so that you are standing on your left leg with your right leg flexed [bent] at the knee; MIQ Conversely, a more common movement such as running up the stairs may elicit varying interpretations from the participant, thus leading to discrepancies in imagery content.

The MIAMS assesses the ability of an athlete to use MG-A and MG-M imagery, wherein the participant images the scene and then rates the image on an ease subscale 1 not at all easy to form to 7 very easy to form and an emotion subscale 1 no emotion to 7 very strong emotion. This is significant because research conclusively demonstrates that individual differences in imagery ability will have an impact on the effectiveness of imagery, and that high imagery ability leads to the ultimate goal: improved performance on a variety of motor tasks Hall, The various questionnaires assessing the frequency of imagery use in sport, exercise, and active play will be addressed.

It is a general measure of imagery used for athletes of any sport at any competitive level. All items are scored on a 7-point Likert scale anchored by 1 rarely and 7 often.

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The SIQ has shown strong psychometric properties i. The items are rated on a 5-point Likert scale anchored at 1 not at all and 5 very often , making it more appropriate for young children. Since its development, the SIQ-C has reported adequate internal consistencies for all subscales Hall et al. The nine-item EIQ was developed from qualitative responses from exercisers reporting their use imagery for three main purposes: appearance, energy, and technique.