Sort order. Apr 27, Michael O'Brien rated it really liked it. A good discussion on how fracking works, the economics driving it, the political issues impacting it, and its benefits. I definitely recommend this for anyone desiring to learn more on this topic. John Graves rated it it was amazing Jun 10, Desertreader57 rated it liked it Mar 07, Walter Brasch rated it it was ok Feb 12, Cathy Schwartz rated it really liked it Jan 13, Graca rated it it was ok Jan 05, Matt Tilly rated it liked it Dec 14, Kyle rated it really liked it Mar 10, Ashley marked it as to-read Feb 11, Beckie marked it as to-read Jul 11, Aditya Candrasaputra marked it as to-read Oct 27, Joseph Barto marked it as to-read Feb 21, Joe Olive added it Oct 01, Yann Viana marked it as to-read May 13, Sapphire Ng marked it as to-read Jan 06, Aimee Bachman added it Jun 28, A single well site can accommodate numerous wells.
Editorial Reviews. From the Author. Learn of the science, the politics and the economics of fracking. Make your own decisions on the benefits and challenges of. Fracking: America's Alternative Energy Revolution [John Graves] on gifitoune.tk . *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. 2nd edition arriving in three weeks!.
Steel pipe known as surface casing is cemented into place at the uppermost portion of a well to protect the groundwater. As the well is drilled deeper, additional casing is installed to isolate the formation s from which oil or natural gas is to be produced, further protecting groundwater from the producing formations in the well. Numerous protective measures are in place at well sites, including liners under well pads, rubber composite mats under rigs, storage tanks with secondary containment measures, and barriers to control any potential runoff.
After the wells on a pad are drilled, cased and cemented, a device perforates the horizontal part of the production pipe to make small holes in the casing, exposing the wellbore to the shale. Then a mixture, commonly known as fracking fluid, of water 90 percent , sand 9. The sand in fracking fluid keeps the fractures open after the pressure is released, and the chemicals are chiefly agents to reduce friction and prevent corrosion.
The FracFocus. Effective hydraulic fracturing regulation can only be achieved at the state level as state regulations can be tailored to geological and local needs. Key state regulations include: Review and approval of permits; well design, location and spacing; drilling operations; water management and disposal; air emissions; wildlife impacts; surface disturbance; worker health and safety; and inspection and enforcement of day-to-day oil and gas operations.
Impacts can be avoided or mitigated with proper practices. Federal regulations provide a broad regulatory foundation for energy development in the United States, including hydraulic fracturing. This includes conducting environmental impact studies, scientific research to help with management options and decisions, and enforcing environmental protections.
The federal government should not use direct or indirect means to limit the innovations that have safely launched an energy revolution in the United States while reducing the environmental impacts of energy production. The key to protecting groundwater is proper well construction, and the oil and gas industry has developed detailed standards for this based on field experience and significant advances in drilling and construction techniques.
In fact, there have been no confirmed cases of groundwater contamination from hydraulic fracturing itself in the at least 2 million wells fracked over the past 68 years. A typical natural gas well uses 3 million pounds of steel and cement. Each layer of steel casing is cemented in place to create an air-tight seal.
Alternating layers of cement and steel casings are designed to ensure well integrity as it passes through groundwater levels thousands of feet down to the energy-holding layers of rock. The industry understands that water is a valuable natural resource and is mindful of the amount of water needed for the hydraulic fracturing process. Corporate activities can vary widely depending on a variety of factors, including local water stresses, individual business needs and even the particular requirements of specific geologic formations. Innovations in water treatment allow companies to use many different types of water in their production activities.
Common sources include surface water, groundwater and municipal water of varying qualities. In addition, companies are diligent about capturing water produced during the exploration and production process, and new water technologies and sophisticated fracturing chemistries help companies make use of this water more frequently as well. Between and in Pennsylvania alone, wastewater reuse increased from 2.
According to the Penn State Marcellus Center for Outreach and Research, during the first half of in the Marcellus shale play, 90 percent of the more than 14 million barrels of produced fluids from fracturing was reused. Source: IEA, U. Thanks to increased use of natural gas, U.
One area where industry continues to build on this success is through the development and implementation of new technologies to reduce methane released during production. For example, all new natural gas wells are required to include green completions measures to reduce emissions.
Additional new requirements also will impact tanks, pneumatic devices, leak detection and leak control. Industry measures are working. Recent EPA data shows that industry initiatives to capture methane are effective. EPA attributed this improvement to reductions in emissions from associated gas venting and flaring. From to production of natural gas increased nearly 50 percent, while methane emissions from natural gas systems remained relatively flat, increasing by just 1.
This oil and natural gas production, enabled by hydraulic fracturing, strengthen U. In addition, the increased use of cleaner-burning natural gas is the main reason U.
If you are accessing TIME. To continue reading: or Log-In. Want the full story?
This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Recent price decline for crude oilis the new oil war between Saudi Arabia and Iran. Subscribe Now. Subscribe to Americas Quarterly's free Week in Review newsletter and stay up-to-date on politics, business and culture in the Americas. The lack of interest in renewable energy sources will likely travel hand-in-hand with the shale gas revolution to Latin America and Africa. Russia locked in these profitable terms when Europe had no better options.
Subscribe Now. Learn more about the benefits of being a TIME subscriber If you are already a subscriber sign up — registration is free!